Tantalum

At A Glance: Ta

Atomic Number: 73
Atomic Symbol: Ta
Atomic Weight: 180.9479
Electron Configuration: [Xe]6s24f145d3
Atomic Radius: 277 pm (Van der Waals)
Melting Point: 3017 °C
Boiling Point: 5458 °C
Oxidation States: 5, 3
Sources: Tantalum ores are found in Australia, Brazil, Mozambique, Thailand, Portugal, Nigeria, Zaire, and Canada.
Uses: Tantalum is a gray, heavy, and very hard metal. When pure, it is ductile and can be drawn into fine wire, which is used as a filament for evaporating metals such as aluminum. Tantalum is almost completely immune to chemical attack at temperatures below 150°C, and is attacked only by hydrofluoric acid, acidic solutions containing the fluoride ion, and free sulfur trioxide. Alkalis attack it only slowly. At high temperatures, tantalum becomes much more reactive. The element has a melting point exceeded only by tungsten and rhenium. Tantalum is used to make a variety of alloys with desirable properties such as high melting point, high strength, good ductility, etc. Tantalum has a good “gettering” ability at high temperatures, and tantalum oxide films are stable and have good rectifying and dielectric properties.
Content provided by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Used with permission.

Rare earth element - Tantalum
Rare earth element - Tantalum
Tantalum Spin Video

Photos of rare earth elements used on our site are copyright of Max Whitby and Theodore Gray. Used with permission.

Tantalum is a key element in many high-tech applications, particularly in small and mobile electronic devices like cell phones or in computer motherboards that need capacitors that have a small size for a given capacitance and lower impedance at high frequencies.

It is also used to make a variety of alloys with desirable properties such as high melting point, high strength, good ductility, etc. Tantalum has a good “gettering” ability at high temperatures, and tantalum oxide films are stable and have good rectifying and dielectric properties.

Uses

Scientists at Los Alamos have produced a tantalum carbide graphite composite material, which is said to be one of the hardest materials ever made. The compound has a melting point of 3738°C. Tantalum is used to make electrolytic capacitors and vacuum furnace parts, which account for about 60% of its use. The metal is also widely used to fabricate chemical process equipment, nuclear reactors, aircraft, and missile parts. Tantalum is completely immune to body liquids and is a nonirritating material. It has, therefore, found wide use in making surgical appliances. Tantalum oxide is used to make special glass with high index of refraction for camera lenses. The metal has many other uses.

Named after Tantalos, a Greek a mythological character, father of Niobe. Discovered in 1802 by Ekeberg, but many chemists thought niobium and tantalum were identical elements until Rowe in 1844, and Marignac, in 1866, showed that niobic and tantalic acids were two different acids. The early investigators only isolated the impure metal. The first relatively pure ductile tantalum was produced by von Bolton in 1903. Tantalum occurs principally in the mineral columbite-tantalite.

Production

Separation of tantalum from niobium requires several complicated steps. Several methods are used to commercially produce the element, including electrolysis of molten potassium fluorotantalate, reduction of potassium fluorotantalate with sodium, or reacting tantalum carbide with tantalum oxide. Twenty five isotopes of tantalum are known to exist. Natural tantalum contains two isotopes.

Uses

Scientists at Los Alamos have produced a tantalum carbide graphite composite material, which is said to be one of the hardest materials ever made. The compound has a melting point of 3,738°C. Tantalum is used to make electrolytic capacitors and vacuum furnace parts, which account for about 60% of its use. The metal is also widely used to fabricate chemical process equipment, nuclear reactors, aircraft, and missile parts. Tantalum is completely immune to body liquids and is a nonirritating material. It has, therefore, found wide use in making surgical appliances. Tantalum oxide is used to make special glass with high index of refraction for camera lenses. The metal has many other uses.

Source: Los Alamos National Laboratory; Molycorp

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